Aspectual distinctions can be made, such as I could see it (ongoing state) vs. For details of the uses of the particular modals, see § Usage of specific verbs below. While used to does not express modality, it has some similarities with modal auxiliaries in that it is invariant and defective in form and can follow auxiliary-verb syntax: it is possible to form questions like Used he to come here? The logical negation of I should is I ought not to or I am not supposed to. Its contracted form is can't (pronounced /kɑːnt/ in RP and some other dialects). Unlike the English modals, however, these verbs are not generally defective; they can inflect, and have forms such as infinitives, participles and future tenses (for example using the auxiliary werden in German). Modal uses of the preterite form would include: Both will and would can be used with the perfect infinitive (will have, would have), either to form the future perfect and conditional perfect forms already referred to, or to express perfect aspect in their other meanings (e.g. Most of the modals have contracted negated forms in n't which are commonly used in informal English: can't, mustn't, won't (from will), etc. The modal word can combine with not forms the single word cannot. When used with the perfect infinitive (i.e. In these uses it is equivalent to ought to. He did not tell his parents about it. He left the house at 9.30. The verb dare also originates from a preterite-present verb, durran ("to dare"), specifically its present tense dear(r), although in its non-modal uses in Modern English it is conjugated regularly. Shall is sometimes used in questions (in the first person) to ask for advice or confirmation of a suggestion: Shall I read now? The verbs dare and need can be used both as modals and as ordinary conjugated (non-modal) verbs. (The would have done construction is called the conditional perfect.). Note that most of these so-called preterite forms are most often used in the subjunctive mood in the present tense. Like other auxiliaries, modal verbs are negated by the addition of the word not after them. The use of can with the perfect infinitive, can have..., is a rarer alternative to may have... (for the negative see below). Erklärungen und Übungen zur englischen Grammatik und zum Wortschatz als PDF-Datei finden Sie auch in unserem Online-Shop auf All the preterites are used as past equivalents for the corresponding present modals in indirect speech and similar clauses requiring the rules of sequence of tenses to be applied. For uses of might in conditional sentences, and as a past equivalent to may in such contexts as indirect speech, see § Past forms above. However the negation effectively applies to the main verb, not the modality: You must not do this means that you are required not to do this, not just that you are not required to do this. The expression can be used with a perfect infinitive: you'd better have finished that report by tomorrow. You sang However, need comes from the regular Old English verb neodian (meaning "to be necessary") – the alternative third person form need (in place of needs), which has become the norm in modal uses, became common in the 16th century.[8]. Thus You should never lie describes a social or ethical norm. Kenneth G. Wilson, "Double Modal Auxiliaries".