[85][86][87] By 1973, these groups had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible.[1][3]. Before WebCrawler, only Web page titles were searched. [204][205][206] A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. The Internet concept was first coined through networking by J C R Liklider in 1962 which initially termed as Galactic network which was used to interconnect a set of computers for accessing data and programs. The growth of mobile phone services was initially a primarily Asian phenomenon with Japan, South Korea and Taiwan all soon finding the majority of their Internet users accessing resources by phone rather than by PC. He later shares his idea with colleagues at the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). "IAB Thoughts on the Role of the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)", S. Floyd, V. Paxson, A. Falk (eds). The network was built by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman. A turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction[243] of the Mosaic web browser[244] in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Initially, as with its predecessor networks, the system that would evolve into the Internet was primarily for government and government body use. In general, an internet was a collection of networks linked by a common protocol. [184], The IETF is not a legal entity, has no governing board, no members, and no dues. [266] A sense of the difficulty in documenting early developments that led to the internet can be gathered from the quote: "The Arpanet period is somewhat well documented because the corporation in charge – BBN – left a physical record. Internet History -- One Page Summary. [183] ICANN provides central coordination for the DNS system, including policy coordination for the split registry / registrar system, with competition among registry service providers to serve each top-level-domain and multiple competing registrars offering DNS services to end-users. [108], At the same time as the rise of internetworking in Europe, ad hoc networking to ARPA and in-between Australian universities formed, based on various technologies such as X.25 and UUCPNet. In terms of providing context for this period, mobile cellular devices ("smartphones" and other cellular devices) which today provide near-universal access, were used for business and not a routine household item owned by parents and children worldwide. Twenty … In August 1995, InfoMail Uganda, Ltd., a privately held firm in Kampala now known as InfoCom, and NSN Network Services of Avon, Colorado, sold in 1997 and now known as Clear Channel Satellite, established Africa's first native TCP/IP high-speed satellite Internet services. NASA conducted the first field test of what it calls the "deep space internet" in November 2008. UUCPnet, as it would later be named, also created gateways and links between FidoNet and dial-up BBS hosts. They both stand for the same concept. [184][185], The IETF grew out of quarterly meeting of U.S. government-funded researchers, starting in January 1986.